// Skip to Main Content
Banner Image

Bachelor of Science Nursing Sources

focused on B. Sc. Nursing students

6S pyramid

Foreground Questions

These questions bring together multiple concepts related to a specific clinical situation or research topic.  They are typically divided into two categories:

Qualitative Questions aim to discover meaning or gain an understanding of a phenomena.  They ask about an individual's or population's experience of certain situations or circumstances. Use the PS model to form these questions.

Quantitative Questions aim to discover cause and effect relationships by comparing two or more individuals or groups based on differing outcomes associated with exposures or interventions. Use the PICO(T) model to form these questions.

See the McMaster Nursing Resources Guide for more details and examples.


Systems integrate information from the lower levels of the hierarchy with individual patient records and, therefore, represent the ideal source of evidence for clinical decision-making.


Summaries are regularly updated clinical guidelines or textbooks that integrate evidence-based information about specific clinical problems.

Clinical Practice Guidelines

Evidence-Based Texts


Meta-Searches search for evidence across multiple resources.  These tools return information from all levels of the pyramid:

Synopses of Syntheses

Synopses of syntheses, summarize the information found in systematic reviews.  By drawing conclusions from evidence at lower levels of the pyramid, these synopses often provide sufficient information to support clinical action.

Synopses of Single Studies

Synopses of single studies are short summaries of individual high-quality studies.

Single Studies

Studies represent unique research conducted to answer specific clinical questions.

Privacy information

Staff Alma Login