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Citation + Plagiarism

"Citations" are used in the text of your paper to document the source of the quotation/paraphrase/idea you are using. The citation is an abbreviated version of the full reference, which appears in a references list at the end of your paper.

APA Style uses parenthetical, author-date citations. After a quote, add parentheses containing the author's name, the year of publication, and, if you are using a direct quote, the page number of the work.  You may also chose to incorporate the citation into your sentence itself. Examples of both are provided in this guide.

 

Paraphrasing means you are restating an idea in your own words. Since you have changed the original wording, you only need to provide the author(s) name(s) and the year of publication in-text.

Parenthetical:

There is some evidence that listening to music at work increases productivity (Brown, 2020).

Narrative:

Brown (2020) determined that listening to music at work increases productivity.

Since direct quotes can be traced back to the original statement, you need to include the author(s) name(s), year of publication, and the page number where the quote can be found.

Parenthetical:

Effective distance employee training "has entered a golden age of accessibility with learning tools like YouTube" (Brown, 2020, p.46).

Narrative:

Brown (2020) argues that "corporate training has entered a golden age of accessibility with learning tools like YouTube," (p.46).

If you aren't using any specific information from a source, you do not need to provide a full in-text citation or reference.

For websites, you can simply provide the URL in parenthesis as part of your text , e.g., We searched YouTube (https://youtube.com) for examples of health and safety training videos.

Print materials, such as journals can be referred to by title, in italics. For example, The Journal of Corporate Training contains several useful studies on distance training.

See pp. 268-9 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for more information.

There are different ways to format your in-text citations depending on the number of authors and type of author for your source.

One author:

Parenthetical:

(Brown, 2020).

Narrative:

Brown (2020)

Two authors:

Parenthetical:

(Brown & Reynolds, 2020).

Narrative:

Brown and Reynolds (2020)

Three or more authors:

Parenthetical:

(Brown et al., 2020).

Narrative:

Brown et al. (2020)

Unknown author:

If the author is unknown, the title is used in place of the author name. If the title of the work is italicized in the references list, e.g., if the source is a book, then it must be italicized in the in-text citation. For example, (Corporate Training in the 21st Century, 2018)

If the title of the work is NOT italicized in the references list, e.g., if the source is an article, then use double quotation marks around the title. For example, ("Corporate Training Using YouTube," 2018).

If the author is listed as "Anonymous," use "Anonymous" as the author name.

See pp. 264-5 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for more information.

See pp. 252-278 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th Edition) for more information or visit the APA Style website.

More resources from APA:

The references list contains the full bibliographic information for your in-text citations. You need to include both an in-text citation and a references list entry when citing a source.

See pp. 312-351 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th Edition) for more information or visit the APA Style website

For more information on periodicals, see pp.317-321 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th Edition) or visit the APA Style website

 

Journal article with a DOI:

Singh, H., & Bohun, M.J. (2019). Trends in marketing non-profits: A multi-year study. Journal of Non-Profit Marketing, 34(12), 33-56. https://doi.org.4459/rev00009383

Journal article without a DOI,with a non-database URL:

Kamin, C., & Kaur, N. (2017). Building better support systems in Canadian colleges: A case study in peer tutoring. Journal of Student Services, 45(5), 78-89. https://www.canadiancommunitycolleges.org/journalstudentservices

Journal article without a DOI, from academic research database or print version:

Khan, S., Page, J.C., & Reynolds, K. (2020). The influence of ambience: Elements of design for productivity in the workplace. Office spaces, 22(8), 17-55.

Note: if you cite multiple pages from a website, you must provide a reference for each page. To mention a website in general, do not create an entry for your references list, simply include the URL in parenthesis in the text of your document. For more information on webpages and websites, see pp.350-1 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th Edition) or visit the APA Style website

Webpage with individual author:

Charlebois, J. (2018, February 15). Making the most of the gig economy. AltWork. https://altwork/making_the_most_of_the_gig/

Webpage on a news website, individual author:

Dye, B. (2019, November 3). Graphic novels are changing English language training. CBC. https://www.cbc.ca/entry/graphic-novels-are-changing-English-language-training/

Webpage on a website with a group author :

Canadian Canine Health Association. (2019, December 4). Lyme disease vaccinations. https://www.ccha.ca/lymedisease/vaccinations/

For more information on books and eBooks, see pp.321-6 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th Edition) or visit the APA Style website

Print version or eBook from an academic research database without a DOI:

Taylor, S. (2019). Alternative medicine for anxiety relief. Random House.

eBook with DOI:

Boschman, S. (2020). Producing successful videos for online learning (3rd ed.). Pearson Learning. https://doi.org/10.4594/00009827-000

eBook without DOI, not from an academic research database:

Tophen, C. (2016). Building learning support networks: A Canadian college perspective. Canadian Learning House. http://bit.ly/393Np

For more information on chapters in edited books, see pp.326-9 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th Edition) or visit the APA Style website

Chapter in edited eBook with DOI:

Parisi, B., & Rigg, C. (2019). The psychology of temperature control and employee productivity. In C. Williamson & G. Vitez (Eds.), Designing successful office spaces (5th ed., pp. 712-801). Canadian Engineers Publishing. https://doi.org/10.5669/00029-190 Pearson Learning. https://doi.org/10.4594/00009827-000

Chapter in an edited eBook without DOI, from academic database or print version:

Bocchinfuso, C. (2016). Unleashing the hidden powers of Microsoft Excel. In S.G. Brown (Ed.), Quantifying user experience (2nd ed., pp. 41-112). World Press.

Chapter in edited eBook without DOI, not from an academic research database:

Rogers, H. & Kendall, D. (2019). Exploring the effects of night shifts. In S. McKay & S. Waldie (Eds.), Shift work in the Canadian workplace (3rd ed., pp. 47-55). Routledge. http://a.co/309d09

For more information on audiovisual works, see pp.342-8 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th Edition) or visit the APA Style website

YouTube or other streaming video:

ncLibraries. (2018). Avoiding plagiarism [Video]. YouTube. https://youtube.com/watch?v=jeikmfi99

Film:

Vitez, G. (Director). (2017). The Library [Film]. BiblioFilms

Podcast:

Khan, S. (Host). (2019, February 2). Birthdays at work (No. 231) [Audio podcast episode]. In Canadian Office Life Podcastopia. https://www.canadianofficelifepod.com/archives/episode231

For more information on reports and grey literature, see pp.329-332 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th Edition) or visit the APA Style website

Report from a government agency or other organization:

Canadian Commission on the Status of Climate Change. (2019). The effects of landfill misuse in Canada. http://publications.gc.ca/collections/climatecommission/landfill.pdf

Annual report:

Canadian Cancer Society. (2019). Annual Report: 2018.. https://www.ccs.ca/files/annual_reports/2018.pdf

For more information on reference works, see pp.326--331 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th Edition) or visit the APA Style website

Entry with group author:

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Synergy. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved April 1, 2019, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/synergy

Entry with individual author:

Page, P.T. (2019). Information literacy. In Brittanica Online. Brittanica. https://www.brittanicaonline/informationliteracy/

For more information on reference works, see Section 8.9 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th Edition) or visit the APA Style website

Personal Communications (not publicly available)

The purpose of a reference list is to allow readers to retrieve the sources you used. Personal communications such as private text messages, emails, telephone conversations, direct messages, etc. that cannot be accessed by readers are not included in your reference list and should be avoided, if possible. It is preferable to use archived communications that can be retrieved by readers.

However, personal communications are still cited in the text of your paper, using either of the following formats:

Narrative citation: H. Rogers (personal communication, August 8, 2020)

Parenthetical citation: (H. Rogers, personal communication, August 8, 2020)

Indigenous Knowledge:

APA provides a suggested format for citing the traditional knowledge or oral history of Indigenous peoples on their website and in Section 8.9 of the APA Publication Manual (7th edition).

Simon Fraser University has expanded the APA's suggestions to include additional information on respectful protocols and acknowledgement.

See pp. 312-351 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th Edition) for more information or visit the APA Style website

More resources from APA:

Description: After completing this module, you will be able to:

  • explain why it is important to document sources
  • describe different types of commonly used citation styles
  • know how to construct and use citations in your own work.

Text, video and quiz - completion 40-50 minutes

Copy link: http://niagaracollege-ca.libwizard.com/f/apastyle

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